do you know What Is This Is Dzuma Dzuma Baby Story – Dzuma (czarna smierc, mr, zaraza morowa) on in english ( The plague (Black Death, plague, pestilence plague) ) – Acute infectious bacterial disease of rodents and (rarely) other small mammals, and humans (zoonosis). This disease is caused by infection G (-) anaerobic Enterobacteriaceae named Yersinia pestis.
Characters and expensive spreading
There are three main forms of plague:
bubonic, septic (septic) pulmonary: primary and secondary.
Most often it occurs among both animals and humans, bubonic form of the plague. Infection occurs usually as a result of bites by fleas (mostly rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis) previously infected by the bite of rats, squirrels, nieswiszczuk�w czarnoogonowych or other small mammals. Following infection, bacteria migrate through the blood and lymph nodes and after approximately five days revealed enlargement of regional organ (the. Bubo). Form of bubonic plague caused may also be ingestion of contaminated food or water (rare in humans).
The figure is usually a septic complication of bubonic plague. In some patients develop, bypassing the bubonic form, once the initial sepsis.
Cardiac form of plague can occur either as a primary infection (in this case it takes place by droplet from person to person, with the exception of the vector infection as fleas, rat) or as a secondary dzumowe pneumonia as a complication of which bubonic. This embodiment is characterized by very high contagiousness (unknown to science are, however, cases of pneumonic plague infections by eg. The ventilation system).
Plague causes stationary rod, ribbon negatively using the method Gram nieprzetrwalnikujaca, Yersinia pestis. This bacterium has a team of genes called Yop virulon producing special tabs protein on the surface of the bacterial cell and endotoxin. With these knobs are recognized phagocytes infected organism and are introduced into the cytoplasm of bacterial endotoxins phagocytes (YopE, and YopH YopT) that block the phagocytosis. This pathogen is sensitive to common disinfectants (chemical and high temperature). It has a relatively high resistance to low temperatures. In an environment experiencing usually from month to half a year.
Pathogenesis, symptoms and recognition
Symptoms of bubonic plague (lat. Pestis Bubonic) emerge from two days to a week from the bite. In the initial period, the first 6-8 hours, non-specific symptoms such as high fever (above 38 � C), sweats, chills, vasodilation, headache and severe weakness.
Then there is enlargement of the lymph nodes (up to approx. 10 cm), especially the fillet, rarely axillary, cervical or other symptoms and inflammation of the lymphatic vessels. Enlarged lymph nodes become painful (sometimes causing limb contractures), soft (due to necrosis of the mechanism of heart attack and purulent changes in the central parts thereof), their contents can be emptied by spontaneous fistula. In mild cases of bubonic plague (lat. Pestis minor) disease process is limited to one group of lymph nodes, even without formation of fistulas. Usually, however, are secondary bubo (occupied are more groups of lymph nodes). In rare cases, bubonic changes occur only in deep lymph nodes. Such cases are very difficult to recognize, like the course of severe forms of typhoid fever or severe form – septic plague.
Form septic (lat. Pestis septica) has, in addition to nonspecific symptoms, a large bacteraemia. As a result of systemic infection, as a reaction macroorganism, there is a generalized inflammatory syndrome (lat. Sepsis). As a result, created microembolism bacterial end the blood vessels of the fingers and toes and nose, resulting in gangrene (manifested black staining of tissue). These symptoms are similar to descriptions of the epidemic “Black Death” of the Middle Ages. In this embodiment, the prognosis is very serious.
In the form of pulmonary (lat. Pestis pneumonic) symptoms of severe, exudative pneumonia with hemoptysis, shortness of breath and cyanosis. The prognosis is much worse than the bubonic form. Pulmonary anthrax is characterized by an unusual contagious through droplets (without the mediation of fleas).
Pneumonia plague is a haemorrhagic, intrabronchial inflammation with erythrocyte croupus effusion.
Early diagnosis is based on an interview with epidemiological and clinical study. To confirm plague used bacteriological cultures of material from the lymph nodes, blood or sputum. Also important they are serological methods and PCR. Final confirmation is done in laboratories with high (3, 4) Degree biosafety.
Treatment involves administration of parenteral antibiotics. The bacteria are sensitive to streptomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol (the first two antibiotics are known. Drugs of choice for the treatment of plague. Chloramphenicol, despite the very high efficiency, is currently used as antibiotic “second-line”, because of the frequent and dangerous side effects) , ciprofloxacin, cephalosporins (in pulmonary and systemic plague) and some tetracycline, doxycycline most often (in mild cases). Large importance of a supportive treatment; the need to develop surgical bubo is rare.
In Poland, sick of the plague are subject to forced hospitalization. Prognosis
In untreated cases, on the basis of data from various epidemics, mortality from bubonic form is estimated to be several to up to 80%
Untreated form of septic (septicemic) and pulmonary plague is 100% lethal (death as pulmonary usually occurs within a few days, as septiceaemic even within 48 hours) 
Proper and early started antibiotics reduces the mortality in the form of bubonic less than 5%, in the form of septic pulmonary and less than 20% (with the proviso that the treatment is made during the first day after the onset of disease symptoms). Prevention
Prevention consists of avoiding contact with dead wild animals and situations in which may be bitten by a rodent (eg. During feeding); use of anti-fleas in domestic animals.
The first vaccine against plague developed in 1890. Is commercially available vaccine against plague which comprises formalin-killed bacteria. It provides protection against bubonic form, but its effectiveness in preventing pulmonary embodiment is small .
For any embodiment except the pulmonary insulation of contacts is not needed, as antibiotic prophylaxis.
The plague as a biological weapon Plague bacteria are classified as “classical” arsenal of biological weapons. Their importance stems from the rarity of plague in developed countries, a fairly high mortality and universal sensitivity of the population. The first known case of their use is the siege of the Crimean port of Kaffa (now Feodosia) by the Tatars in 1346. Besiegers with catapults threw the walls of the city corpses of the dead from the disease (refugees from the city spread the epidemic throughout Europe). Criminal experiments of plague as a weapon bacteriological led the Japanese military during the years 1937-1945 in the unit “731” in Manchuria, led by the Japanese. Military doctor, General. Ishiiego Shiro (1892-1959). In this unit, including They developed a special porcelain bombs designed to spread infected fleas. During the Cold War they were led by the Soviet Union and the United States research on varieties of plague bacilli that may be used as a biological weapon.
Apollo strikes headed swine, illustration for the Iliad; Stanislaw Wyspianski, 1897
Originally the Latin word pestis was one of the many general terms “plague” or “mass misery”, “destruction”. Only in the XV-XVI. They began to distinguish between different types of diseases that cause massive disease epidemic fatal. This word has a vague origin, it may be akin to Latin. perdo – “lost, destroyed, wasted,” Lat. perditus – “lost, incurable, hopeless.” Protective clothing physician during the plague epidemic (Germany, the seventeenth century.)
There are disputes whether one of the first descriptions of epidemic given by Thucydides called. “Plague of Athens” in 430 BC It was actually plague (it is possible that it was typhoid, dengue, smallpox and hemorrhagic fever virus). From ancient times through the Middle Ages up to modern times is described dozens of major epidemics (most likely) the plague, also known as “Black Death” (from emerging extensive necro-zgorzelinowych in the skin, taking a dark color).
The largest of them swept up by the European countries in the mid-sixth century, the so-called. the plague of Justinian and in the years 1348-1352, and a few years later in China. This epidemic in some parts of the population has decreased by up to 80% of the population and caused far-reaching consequences of the demographic, cultural and social and political. The symbol of the plague has become a distinctive protective clothing worn in the sixteenth-eighteenth century. By doctors during the epidemic, with a mask in the shape of the beak, where he was put fragrant oils suppressing the stench of decomposing corpses. In addition to clothing, were protected against the plague also special antidotes: the most valuable of which was scabiosa, but also used Four Thieves Vinegar (wine vinegar, where for 12 days soaked mugwort wormwood, rue ordinary, rosemary, sage and other herbs containing essential oils with strong bactericidal properties) and “scabiosa poor” – garlic.
Bacterial agent that causes plague identified in 1894. Irrespective of the s
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